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Citizen: Grief. Community

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Mason Anderson
Mason Anderson

Express Burn Plus 11.03 ((NEW))



All options of a question can be true or false, independently of each other.Go to chapters 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 1011Chapter 01: Basic concepts 01.01 When is an organism an isomorph? true false If it resembles a sphere. If it resembles a cube. If it resembles another organism. If it does not change in shape during growth. 01.02 What is the difference between strong and weak homeostasis? true false Strong homeostasis refers to a strictly constant chemical composition; constancy is less strict under weak homeostasis. Strong homeostasis applies to possibly varying conditions, weak homeostasis to constant conditions only. Strong homeostasis implies constraints for reserve dynamics, weak homeostasis does not have these implications. 01.03 What is the implication if weak homeostasis is not assumed? true false The chemical composition of the organism can vary at varying food densities. The chemical composition of the organism can vary at constant food densities. Reserve dynamics is no longer determined by the partitionability requirement. 01.04 The structural homeostasis hypothesis true false gives a mechanism for weak homeostasis. gives a mechanism for reserve dynamics as a first-order process on the basis of densities. gives a mechanism for the relative size of organelles. gives a mechanism for membrane dynamics. 01.05 A resting spore can be conceived of as true false an embryo, because it does not feed. a juvenile, because it does not reproduce. neither embryo or juvenile. 01.06 Do all rate parameters of the standard DEB model respond to temperature in the same way? true false Yes, because else conversion efficiencies become temperature dependent, which is not possible in the standard model. Yes, but only if non-rate parameters depend on temperature as well. No, all parameters can be effected by temperature in different ways, like by toxicants. No, all rate parameters can be effected by temperature in different ways, like by toxicants. 01.07 Weak homeostasis has implications for reserve dynamics, strong homeostasis does not. Should they switch names? true false Yes, because weak homeostasis is more restrictive. No, because you first need to identify pools before you can specify their dynamics. No, because strong homeostasis always applies, weak homeostasis only at constant food. No, because strong homeostasis applies to pools, weak homeostasis to the whole individual, which allows for weaker predictictions. 01.08 When are systems near the supply-end of the supply-demand spectrum? true false When reproduction is seasonal. When growth depends on age. When food consumption is independent of food availability. When maintenance increases with food intake. 01.09 What is the definition of birth? true false Age is zero. Initiation of development. Initiation of feeding. 01.10 What is reserve? true false A pool of metabolites, set apart for later use when there is a need for it. A pool of metabolites that is synthesized from food/substrate and is always used for metabolism. A pool of metabolites that contributes to metabolic memory. Chapter 02: Standard DEB model 02.01 How should we measure an organism's surface area to quantify changes in feeding rates. true false By coating the organism with a constant thickness, and measure the amount of coat. By using the approximation that it is isomorphic, measure its length, and take surface area proportional to squared length. By using the approximation that it is isomorphic, measure its volume, while surface area is proportional to volume to the power 2/3. We again have the difference between physical and structural volume. Effects on digestion are compensated by decreasing gut surface area per gut volume. 02.02 Does a big egg take a longer incubation time than a small egg? true false No, it needs a shorter incubation time if the amount of initial reserves is the only difference. Yes, because large eggs result in large neonates, which take longer to develop. Egg size is independent of incubation time. 02.03 What is the difference between egg and foetal development? true false A foetus gets food during development, while an egg has to rely on internal reserves. Especially precocial species experience a decrease in developmental rate prior to hatching. 02.04 How can we tell structure apart from reserve in a DEB model? true false We can never separate structure from reserve in amounts or composition. We can never assign a particular molecule to either reserve or structure. We can obtain the chemical composition of structure and reserve from observations on the chemical composition of biomass at different growth rates. Reserve consists of special chemical compounds that are not present in the structure, such as lipids and starch. 02.05 Given a specified investment into reproduction and the existence of a reserve and structure compartment, what are the degrees of freedom for the production of neonates? true false We can increase the amount of neonates' structure at the expense of the reproduction rate. We can increase the amount of neonates' reserve at the expense of the reproduction rate. We can increase the incubation time. 02.06 Why does reproduction not affect assimilation, growth or maintenance in the standard DEB model? true false Because energy investment in reproduction is small. Because energy required for reproduction is extracted from food by an increased digestion efficiency. Because reproduction is at the expense of development. 02.07 Do embryos and juveniles differ substantially in the following respect? true false Embryos gain energy from reserves, juveniles from food. The specific maintenance costs for juveniles are much higher because of their increased activity. The specific growth costs are much higher for embryos as compared with juveniles. Juveniles start allocate to reproduction, embryo's don't. 02.08 What is the definition of the dissipating flux? true false The collection of fluxes that dissipate. Maintenance, maturation plus reproduction overheads. The collection of fluxes in which reserve is fully mineralized. Maintenance plus growth overheads. 02.09 What is the immediate effect of an increase of energy conductance? true false The reserve capacity goes down. The growth rate increases. The maturation or reproduction rate increases. The assimilation rate increases. 02.10 What is the long-term effect of an increase of energy conductance? true false The ultimate amount of structure goes up. The ultimate body weight goes down. The ultimate reproduction rate goes up. Chapter 03: Metabolism 03.01 Why is it important to express product formation of enzymes in terms of arrival rates, rather than concentrations of substrates? true false Because (production) rates are then functions of (arrival) rates, which give less problems in applications than rates as functions of concentrations. Because concentrations imply a homogeneous environment. Because then it is easier to make mass balances. 03.02 When will product formation by enzymes be infinitely large at constant arrival fluxes of substrates? true false If substrate concentrations are infinitely large. If the amount of enzyme is infinitely large. If substrate handling time of an enzyme is infinitely short. 03.03 What are major differences between auto- and heterotrophs? true false Their assimilation routes. Their use of internal reserves. The chemical composition of internal reserves. Their maintenance requirements. The way in which they grow. 03.04 What is a C-mol? true false A mole of a compound that contains carbon. An amount of organic compound, such that its weight equals its molecular weight times Avogadro's number. An amount of organic compound, such that its weight equals that of a mole of carbon. An amount of a mixture of compounds, such that the number of C-atoms equals Avogadro's number. An amount of compound, such that its weight equals Avogadro's number times its molecular weight divided the number of C-atoms per molecule. 03.05 What is the difference between sequential and parallel processing? true false The SU binds each arriving molecule of each type one after the other in sequential processing, but can do so simultaneously in parallel processing. The SU binds first one type, and then the other sequentially, and can do so simultaneously in parallel processing. There are no fundamental differences between sequential and parallel processing. 03.06 When is it essential to measure energies, or energy fluxes? true false If we want to predict energy fluxes. If we want to predict mass fluxes. If we want to predict effects of temperature. 03.07 Why is it important to make mass balances? true false To test experimental data on their consistency. To increase the accuracy of the measurements. To test models on their consistency. To make sure that models are complete. Mass balances are rarely important. 03.08 The single most useful measures for biomass are true false C-moles, because mass balances require them. Weights, because they are easy to measure. Lengths, because we need volumes and surface areas to quantify maintenance and feeding. Enthalpies, because these quantify nutritional values. Carbon contents, because these quantify nutritional values. 03.09 When does the water content of structure exceeds that of reserve? true false If the relative decrease of dry weight during starvation is less then that of wet weight. If the dry weight over wet weight ratio is less than average. If the weight-specific water intake increases during growth at constant food. 03.10 Is respiration a good quantifier for metabolic rate? true false Sure, the literature is using this for more than a century. No, anearobic organisms are metabolically active, but do not use dioxygen. No, reproduction represents metabolic activity, but hardly contributes to the use of dioxygen. The best quantifier is the dissipation of entropy. Chapter 04: Univariate DEB models 04.01 Why is heat production a weighted sum of di-oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production and nitrogen-waste production? true false Because these mineral fluxes contribute most to heat production in all cellular transformations. Because di-oxygen is used to burn eventually all cell's organic compounds to carbon dioxide and nitrogen waste. All transformations are weighted sums of assimilation, dissipation and growth. Heat production is not such a weighted sum, because all transformations are weighted sums of assimilation, dissipation, growth and reproduction. 04.02 Why is the reserve flux negative during the embryonic period, and positive during the juvenile and adult ones at constant food density? true false Because growth is from reserves in embryo's and from food in juvenile and adults. Because reserve synthesis exceeds reserve consumption in juveniles and adults. Because juveniles and adults synthesize reserves from food, and embryos do not. 04.03 Does DNA belong to the structure, and not to the reserve? true false Yes, because DNA is not used for nutrient of energy storage. Yes, because the weight-specific DNA content is independent of the growth rate. Yes, because DNA repair mechanisms can be interpreted as maintenance, which is not required for reserves. 04.04 Fully grown water fleas continue moulting during starvation. Does this observation allow to link moult production to a basic energy flux? true false Moult production is only associated with assimilation. Moult production is only associated with growth. Moult production is only associated with maintenance. 04.05 Is it possible to partition di-oxygen consumption into contributions from assimilation, dissipation and growth? true false Yes, but only in a way that involves extra assumptions about energy allocation. Yes, but only if the composition of food, faeces, reserve and structure are known. No, an increase of di-oxygen consumption with assimilation can balance a decrease with maintenance, without being noticed from whole-organism responses. 04.06 Can reproduction rate, expressed as number of offspring per time, be written as a weighted sum of assimilation, dissipation and growth? true false Yes, because it is a flux and can therefore be written as such. No, because reserves in produced embryos plus own reserves can be written as such, and not one of them separately. 04.07 Are changing food conditions more informative for energetics than constant conditions? true false than a set of different constant food conditions? No, if the number of data points is small. Yes, because the changes in body composition give information about the composition of reserve and structure. Yes, because it reveals reserve dynamics and allocation rules. 04.08 Why does a constant respiration, urination and watering quotient imply that reserve and structure have the same composition? true false Because three constraints eliminate three degrees of freedom in the relative abundances of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Because the constant respiration quotient implies that the carbon/oxygen ratios of reserve and structure are the same; the constant other two quotients have similar implications for nitrogen and hydrogen, respectively. The constant three quotients do not imply that the compositions of reserve and structure are the same. 04.09 Why can the mineral fluxes be found from the organic fluxes? true false Because the number of mineral fluxes equals the number of elemental balance equations. Because they determine dissipating heat, and heat determines the mineral fluxes on the basis of indirect calorimetry. They do so only if the elemental composition of the organic compounds are known, and that of the reserve has to differ from that of the structure. 04.10 Can a product of a V1-morph always disappear, rather than appear, in association with ... true false assimilation? maintenance or dissipation? growth? 04.11 Ribosomal RNA cannot belong to the reserve, true false because it is subjected to turnover, so to maintenance, which makes it part of the structure. because it catalizes protein synthesis, and is no source for nutrients or energy. because the weight-specific rRNA content is constant as a function of growth rate. 04.12 Crusts differ from films and sheets because true false they are thinner. they are thicker. they have a limited extension. they have different maintenance requirements. Chapter 05: Multivariate DEB models 05.01 Can a mother-foetus system be considered as a two-reserve, two-structure system? true false Yes, if translocation is large relative to foetal utilization. No, because foetal assimilation is non-existent. 05.02 Glucose and fructose are parallelly processed by bacteria true false because they are taken up by different carriers. No, their uptake still interferes. 05.03 What are necessary (but not sufficient) conditions for a multi-reserve model to simplify to a single-reserve one? true false The assimilation rates of the different substrates must be proportional. The composition of the different reserves must be identical. The turnover rates must be equal. The turnover rates must be large, except for one reserve. All rejected reserves must be excreted. 05.04 Why is it hard to interpret photosynthesis-irradiance curves? true false Because the time-period for measurement affects the results. Because many processes contribute to net di-oxygen production. Because other factors, such as nitrogen availability, affect PI-curves. 05.05 Does the non-limiting reserve increase with the growth rate? true false Yes, if unused reserves are excreted. No, if unused reserves are fed back to the reserves. It can have an optimum relationship with the growth rate. 05.06 Product formation can be written as a weighted sum of assimilation, dissipation and growth in an single-reserve, single-structure model. How many fluxes must be considered in a two-reserve model? true false 2 assimilation fluxes, 1 dissipation, 1 growth flux. 2 assimilation fluxes, 2 excretion, 1 dissipation, 1 growth flux. 2 assimilation fluxes, 2 excretion, 2 dissipation, 1 growth flux. 05.07 What is the CO2-compensation point in photosynthesis? true false A carbon dioxide concentration above which it is non-limiting. The di-oxygen concentration above which it becomes toxic. The ratio of carbon dioxide and di-oxygen concentration at which photorespiration equals photosynthesis. 05.08 Do plants grow during a dark night? true false No, plants need light to grow. Only C4-plants do, but C3-plants do not. Only plants that are heterotrophic. 05.09 Why is excretion required for multiple reserve DEB systems? true false Excretion is never required. Excretion only occurs for reserves in excess. To avoid unbounded accumulation of reserves if they would be in excess. 05.10 How can we include an increase in heart volume in response to prolonged sporting? true false We need multiple reserves for that. We need multiple structures for that, with a static generalisation of the kappa-rule. We need multiple structures for that, with a dynamic generalisation of the kappa-rule and adjustable maintenance. Chapter 06: Effects of compounds 06.01 Is there any difference between first-order and one-compartment kinetics? true false These two types of kinetics are always identical. The only difference is in the interpretation of the changing variable; this is internal concentration in one-compartment kinetics, while it can be anything in first-order kinetics. First order kinetics is based on diffusion, one-compartment kinetics makes another assumption on transport of compound. One-compartment kinetics only implicates that we deal with a single compartment, which can have many different types of kinetics. First order kinetics is just one possibility. 06.02 Toxicokinetics can be specified in terms of a set differential equations for the internal and external concentrations or in terms of concentrations as functions of time. Are these specifications equivalent? true false Yes, if the initial conditions are specified as well. Yes, but when it comes to fit the model to data, the explicit functions are much easier to work with. Yes, but the set of differential equations is much easier to work with when we want to study or modify the mechanisms that are incorporated in the model. 06.03 Does the growth of an organism during exposure affect toxicokinetics? true false No, as long as this growth does not affect the external concentration. Yes, because uptake is enhenced by the uptake of compounds that are necessary for growth. Yes, because the surface that is involved in exchange is affected and the internal compound is diluted by growth, while the elimination flux depends on the internal concentration. 06.04 What is the definition of the LC50 for some exposure time? true false The estimated concentration at which the mortality probability is 50 percent of that in the control? The estimated concentration at which the survival probability is 50 percent of that in the control? The estimated concentration at which 50 percent of the initial amount of individuals died? The highest tested concentration with no more than 50 percent mortality. 06.05 Suppose that we have two toxic compounds that differ in the elimination rate, but the accumulation rate and the toxicity per molecule are the same. Do these compounds have the same NEC? true false The NECs are the same because the compounds have the same toxicity. The only difference is that we have to wait longer for effects for the compound with the smallest elimination rate. The NECs differ because we have to wait longer for effects for the compound with the smallest elimination rate. Therefore, the effects at the end of the bioassay are less for the compound with the smallest elimination rate. The NECs differ because we have to wait longer for effects for the compound with the largest elimination rate. Therefore, the effects at the end of the bioassay are less for the compound with the largest elimination rate. 06.06 Suppose that we have two toxic


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